A few years back, a very detailed blog post was released on Troubleshooting Exchange 2007 Store Log/Database growth issues.
We wanted to revisit this topic with Exchange 2010 in mind. While the troubleshooting steps needed are virtually the same, we thought it would be useful to condense the steps a bit, make a few updates and provide links to a few newer KB articles.
The below list of steps is a walkthrough of an approach that would likely be used when calling Microsoft Support for assistance with this issue. It also provides some insight as to what we are looking for and why. It is not a complete list of every possible troubleshooting step, as some causes are simply not seen quite as much as others.