In this article I will show you how to configure Forefront TMG Server webserver Load Balancing capabilities to balance the load to multiple internal web servers. I will also cover some NLB basics of Forefront TMG and Windows Server 2008 R2 to complete the overview of the load balancing capabilities of Forefront TMG and Windows Server 2008 R2.
Let us begin
Forefront TMG can distribute Web traffic to identical configured web servers that are normally a special function of a Hardware load balancer. Web server load balancing distributes network traffic to different hosts in the internal network without using classic NLB functions of the Windows operating system.
It is possible to publish a hardware load balancing device to balance web traffic to internal web server but Forefront TMG web farm load balancing has a number of advantages (but also disadvantages):
Some Hardware load balancers use source IP addresses to balance web requests, but this solution might only be suitable in environments where these servers are not behind a NAT device. Forefront TMG does not forward the original IP address in a standard web server publishing scenario. The IP address from the external client will always be masked with the IP address of the TMG Server. If you want to be able to forward the original client IP from the external requesting client, the published web server has to set its Default Gateway to Forefront TMG which is not suitable in some environments.
Another way to distribute traffic to web servers is to use the Windows integrated Network Load Balancing (NLB) mechanism. NLB allows distributing network traffic based on port rules. All nodes in an NLB cluster use one Virtual IP address (VIP) which is used by Forefront TMG to forward traffic. The NLB algorithm distributes traffic across the NLB cluster members.
Network Load balancing basics
Very briefly; NLB is a kind of cluster technology which is not exclusive to Microsoft Windows. NLB is part of the Windows Server 200x operating system family and is used to distribute network traffic for up to 32 hosts in the network. NLB uses a distributed algorithm that load-balances incoming traffic to all nodes in a Windows NLB cluster. So, NLB can be used to provide failover and Load balancing capabilities.
It is possible to enable the Network Load Balancing feature on every Windows Server 2008 version. The following figure shows the Windows Server 2008R2 Network Load Balancing Manager with only one NLB node.
NLB with Forefront TMG
If you plan to load balance internal Web Servers with the Forefront TMG Web Server Farm Load Balancing feature, you should also keep in mind that Forefront TMG Server might be the single point of failure (SPOF) when TMG is not load balanced. Forefront TMG Enterprise uses NLB to load balance TMG Server. It is possible to use NLB in integrated mode, the preferred and recommended mode in Forefront TMG. It is also possible to use NLB with Forefront TMGStandard but this is not officially supported by Microsoft and has some limitations.
Load balancing mechanism
Webserver requests from different IP addresses will be distributed among the Web farm members. The round-robin mechanism ensures that the request of the user to a Web application serviced by a Web farm is distributed evenly among farm members that are online. When failover occurs, servers that are not responding are detected, and the load is distributed among the available servers.
Cookie based affinity
Session (Cookie) based affinity is normally used to publish Outlook Web Access (OWA) from Exchange Server 200x or Microsoft SharePoint services/Servers sites. You should not use Session affinity if you want to publish RPC over HTTP(S) services or Outlook Anywhere in Exchange Server 2007 and higher. RPC over HTTP(S) is used to give Outlook clients full access to Exchange Server from the Internet. RPC traffic will be tunneled through HTTPS. With Outlook it is not possible to use Cookie based affinity.
With IP affinity, the web server traffic is distributed based on IP to all members of the Web farm. If one Server fails to respond, the traffic will be sent to another member of the Web farm.
You should not use IP based affinity, if remote clients are located behind a NAT server, because the web server farm will only see the IP address of the TMG Server. If this is the case you should use Session affinity, if it is possible.
IP affinity is useful in an Exchange RPC over HTTP(S) also called Outlook Anywhere scenario, where session affinity cannot be used or, in Exchange Active Sync publishing scenarios, where the client does not fully understand HTTP 1.1 (which is needed for cookie based affinity).
To create a webserver load balancing publishing rule start the TMG management console and navigate to the Firewall policy node and create a Web Site Publishing rule.
Figure 2: Start the Web publishing wizard
Name the new policy rule and allow the traffic.
Click publish a server farm of load balanced Web servers
Figure 3: Publish a server farm
Because we are publishing an internal Web server without HTTPS, specify the appropriate option.
Figure 4: Use only HTTP
Enter the internal Site name and specify a path if you want to publish the web server only to a specific path.
As the next step create a new Farm, enter the name of the farm and add the internal web servers to the Web Server farm, as you can see in the following screenshot, and specify how Forefront TMG should load balance incoming web requests.
Figure 5: Specify Farm member
Forefront TMG creates a connection verifier to monitor the availability of the farm members. If one server is not reachable an alert will be created. You can customize the alert actions and I will show you later how to do this.
Figure 6: Connection verifier
A new popup window appears and will ask you if you want to activate a system policy rule to allow HTTP requests from Forefront TMG to the published web servers. Click Yes if you want to do this.
Figure 7: System policy rule
The next step is to create the specify Listener which Forefront TMG uses to listen to incoming traffic. Because my article only focuses the Web Server farm load balancing functionality, I will only give you some more information when you publish a web server over HTTP.
Forefront TMG warns the user that the current configuration may be unsecure when authentication requests are sent over HTTP.
Figure 8: Allow a system policy rule
To allow client authentication over HTTP you must allow this in the Advanced Authentication options window in the Listener properties as you can see in the following screenshot.
Figure 9: Allow client Authentication over HTTP
After the Webserver publishing rule has been created, navigate to the properties of the rule and click the Web Farm tab to verify the correct configuration.
Figure 10: Web Farm properties
Monitoring Web Server Farm Status
If you want to know which web server farm member is available or unavailable, Forefront TMG automatically creates connection verifiers when you create the Web Server farm. A connection verifier detects the status of farm member and reports this event to the alert configuration in TMG Server, which creates notifications like e-mail messages, entries in the event log and more.
Servers in a web server farm can have five different states:
This is the normal state of a web server in the farm and indicates that the server is reachable and able to accept requests.
This state indicates that the web server didn’t respond to the connection verifier within the specified timeout. No requests are sent to this farm member.
This state indicates that the web server is in the process of being drained. Existing connections will be finished but new requests will not be sent to this server. This feature is useful if you want to place one Server of the Web Server Farm in maintenance mode.
This state indicates that the web server has been removed from the farm, and is not accepting requests.
Unable to verify
This indicates that the server state cannot be verified.
Web Server maintenance
If you want to place one web server manually into maintenance mode navigate to the Servers tab, select the server and click the Drain button to place the server in maintenance mode so that Forefront TMG knows that this node is not available for load balancing requests. For session based affinity, the server will continue to handle current sessions but will not accept new connections. If you are using IP based affinity a drained server stops receiving requests, but existing connections to that server are still handled.
Figure 11: Servers included in the Farm
To configure alert actions when the Web server farm servers are not available, navigate to the monitoring node and in the task pane select Alerts properties and specify the actions you want to perform when a Server in the Web farm is unavailable.
Figure 12: Web Farm monitoring and alerting
In this article, I tried to give you an overview of how Microsoft Forefront TMG enables web server load balancing to load balance web traffic to several internal web servers without using a classic hardware Load Balancer or a NLB (Network Load Balancing) solution based on Windows Server 2008 R2. In my opinion, the Web Server Load Balancing feature of Forefront TMG is a nice feature for a limited number of Web Servers with basic functionality. A traditional Hardware Load Balancer might have a few more advanced features.
- Explaining ISA Server 2006 Web Server load balancing
- Web Farm IP Affinity Load Balancing Algorithm
- Publishing a single Web site or load balancer over HTTP
- High availability and scalability design guide for Forefront TMG